A perfume is made of approximately 150-250 different components which - in order to create a flavoursome fragrance - are matched with each other harmoniously.
The fragrance composition corresponds to its development over time which unfolds in 3 sets of different notes and is described through a fragrance pyramid. The fragrance pyramid is a visual representation of timely succeeding scents which are subdivided in top-or head -, middle-or heart- and base (dry down) notes. This perfume structure represents the balanced interplay of scents. The fragrance evolution from top- to middle- and finally to base notes happens fluently and very slowly. Usually, not every singular ingredient is shown in the fragrance pyramid but only the main composition with the most important scents of a fragrance.
Head notes, also called top notes, are perceived most intensely directly after spraying and evaporate after a few minutes. They are made of intensive, fresh, citric, green or watery scents. Since top notes are most dominant immediately after application of a perfume they form a person's initial impression.
Middle notes, also called heart notes, emerge before the dissipation of top notes which is after a few minutes. Usually, heart notes are made of warm scents which could be floral or aromatic notes, sweet spices or aldehydes. These ingredients will last a few hours.
Base notes, also called dry down, evaporate slowly and last for many hours or even days. They appear before the departure of the middle notes and represent the final fragrance stage. The base notes consist of deep, rich and opulent compounds with strong intensity. Base notes contain mainly strong spices, musk, animalic or woody scents.